The Renewables Portfolio Standard: A Practical Guide

Mandatory purchase by utilities of renewable energy is now the law in over two dozen states.  There are many variations on eligible sources, alternative means of compliance, creation of "renewable energy credits," "banking," and other factors.  There also is a growing recognition that regional markets can be more cost-effective than state-by-state markets.

This paper, co-authored with Nancy Rader and funded by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), was written in 2000, at the early stages of RPS design, to guide regulatory and legislative decisions.  It is worth re-reading now, as states revisit their original RPS designs.